The Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) is working closely with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to investigate a new virus which has been linked to the death of a Kansas resident during the summer of 2014. Although the host of this new virus, called Bourbon virus, is unknown at this time, it is thought to be transmitted through the bites of ticks or other insects. Symptoms in the Kansas resident resembled other tick-borne diseases, including fever and fatigue.
This is the first known case of Bourbon virus, which has been named after Bourbon County, where the patient had lived. Because of the patient's symptoms and changes in blood counts, it was believed that the resident had a tick-borne illness, such as ehrlichiosis or Heartland virus disease. However, specimens taken from the resident tested negative for known tick-borne diseases and after further investigation it was determined to be a new, never before seen, virus. It is not known if Bourbon virus was the cause of death or how much it contributed to the resident’s death.
CDC, KDHE, and the clinical team are working to learn more about this new virus. The patient's case history has been reviewed and there are plans to test other residents, with similar symptoms, who have tested negative for Heartland virus in the last year for this novel virus. CDC has developed blood tests that can be used to identify and confirm recent Bourbon virus infections. Finally, investigations are ongoing to explore how people are getting infected with the virus, including plans to collect and test ticks and other insects for the new virus.
There is no known specific treatment, vaccine, or drug for Bourbon virus disease. Since Bourbon virus disease is thought to be transmitted through tick or insect bites, risk to the public during the winter months is minimal. To reduce the potential risk of tick- or insect-borne illnesses, KDHE and CDC recommend that people:
Avoid wooded and bushy areas with high grass and leaf litter;
Use insect repellent containing DEET when outdoors;
Use products that contain permethrin on clothing;
Wear clothing with long sleeves and pants;
Bathe or shower as soon as possible after coming indoors to wash off and more easily find ticks that are crawling on you;
Conduct a full-body tick check after spending time outdoors; and
Examine gear and pets, as ticks can “ride” into the home and attach to a person later.